Flowing from the discourse establishing the relevance of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) for human protection, this Second Seminar aims at examining the workings of R2P and conducting a comparative analysis of acts of intervention for human protection pre and post R2P principle, with a view to appraising the improvements made by R2P on human protection (if any) and suggest the way forward. To this end, this Seminar discusses the emerging norm of R2P in terms of the three responsibilities it imposes, the crimes presently covered by R2P regime, and the criteria for the implementation of R2P. It also examines acts of intervention for human protection before R2P and after R2P using selected countries as case studies, discusses the challenges of human protection under R2P and makes recommendations for an effective protection of civilian populations in countries undergoing internal conflict.
The major findings here among others is that impressive and remarkable improvement in the international community‘s response to mass atrocities, especially in terms of practical intervention, has not been achieved even under the R2P regime, save that the need for human protection is more popularized. Implementation of R2P has not been consistent, and cases of unsuccessful or non-implementation are higher than cases of successful implementation of R2P.
This Seminar proposes measures that will make for effective human protection under the R2P regime.

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